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TIGER (Topologically Integrated Geographic Encoding and Referencing) is a spatial database maintained by the U.S. Census Bureau that includes the geographic coordinates and attributes of roads; railroads; miscellaneous transportation features (pipelines, power lines, etc.); hydrographic features; address ranges; landmarks; and legal, statistical, and administrative entity boundaries for the entire United States as well as Puerto Rico, American Samoa, Guam, Northern Mariana Islands, and the U.S. Virgin Islands. The TIGER system comprises the spatial database and all of the software, specifications, and data capture materials and processes used to create and maintain the database, which is used to produce various products, including maps, address references, and geographic files.

TIGER was developed by the Census Bureau prior to the 1990 Census of Population and Housing, due to inconsistencies ...

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