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Spatial filtering is the application of formulae to obtain enhanced or improved images in remote sensing and more robust findings in data analytic work. Mathematical operators are utilized to separate geographically structured noise from both trend and random noise in georeferenced data, enhancing results by allowing clearer visualization and sounder statistical inference. Nearby/adjacent values are manipulated to adjust the value at a given point, smoothing, reducing variability, and retaining the local features of georeferenced data.

This manipulation is similar to focusing a camera in order to avoid a blurred picture. Any real-world data for a given geographic resolution will display noticeable discrepancies between individual ground truth measures and visualization sharpness, producing a map that is similar to a fuzzy picture. Possible causes of this blurriness include ...

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