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In GIS, the data that are used are often derived from some sort of sample. The term sampling refers to the process of establishing such samples. A sample is simply a subset of some population of entities that we wish to know about; this population is sometimes called the target population. Identifying the target population is not always easy, as it is defined by the varying objectives of each specific study. Sometimes, the entire population will be sufficiently small, which enables its inclusion in total in the study to give what is called a census. In this case, data are gathered on every member of the population. Usually, however, the population is too large for the researcher to attempt to survey all of its members, ...

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