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Pattern is that characteristic of a spatial arrangement given by the spacing of individual points, lines, or areas in relation to one another. It is thus a secondorder property of great generality that can be applied to every type of object. Pattern analysis attempts to detect its existence, visualize it, and characterize it as a basis for speculation about its generation.

Patterns of Points

The pattern created by the locations of point events spread over some region of interest can be visualized using simple dot maps or using kernel density estimation to generate a contour-type map of the spatial variation in point density. With such a display, numerous measures of aspects of the pattern have been suggested. Most attempts to simplify by collapsing the number of dimensions ...

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