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The term mental map is used synonymously with cognitive map and sometimes referred to as spatial mental representation. Mental map refers to the spatially located knowledge that each of us gains about the world around us. This knowledge is acquired either through direct experience, such as wayfinding, or secondary sources. Secondary sources are responsible for the majority of information that we possess about our environments and range from simple communications such as verbal route directions to travel itineraries, paper maps, and digital resources. Geographic information systems (GIS) are among the most prominent of the digital resources and offer access to spatial knowledge in manifold ways.

The way knowledge is presented and made accessible is a major influencer of how we think and understand spatial environments, and ...

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