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A specific use of GIS technology to manage and service the records of individual land parcels is often referred to in the United States, Australia, and Canada as land information systems (LIS). LIS are concerned with managing all types of data associated with ownership of individual land parcels and reflects the cadastral map and associated streets and rights-of-way that allow access and carry utilities to each land parcel. It has been suggested that 90% of all the processes involved with the running of local governments require spatial data and information. The majority of these processes relate to services provided to individual land parcels lying within the local government jurisdiction and to the streets used to carry services and to access land parcels.

European countries, having a ...

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