Permaculture is an adaptive, integrated, and holistic design science providing a symbiotic relationship between modern and indigenous cultures specific to a permanent place within ecological systems. The word permaculture was first used in the mid 1970s by Bill Mollison, an Australian ecologist, and his student David Holmgren. It involves a synergism of permanent agriculture evolving to a permanent culture. Permaculture designs patterns of ecosystems that balance human habitats with self-sufficient community food production systems. The ecological design path aims to preserve biodiversity through closed natural ecosystems. The scientific principles of permaculture lie generally within the synthesis of systems ecology and geography. The land use systems principles promote a resilient ecosystem and society.

Permaculture merges traditional cultures with local organic agriculture in urban and rural land design. ...

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