Mobile GIS (geographic information systems) is an integrated software/hardware framework to allow users access to geospatial data and GIServices through mobile devices (e.g., iPhones, pocket PCs [personal computers], Smart phones, notebook computers, and personal digital assistants [PDAs]) via wired or wireless networks. There are two types of mobile GIS applications: field-based GIS and location-based services (LBSs). Field-based GIS focuses on GIS data collection, validation, and update in the field, such as adding or editing map features or changing the attribute tables in an existing GIS data set. Location-based services focus on business-oriented location management functions, such as navigation, street routing, finding a specific location, tracking a vehicle, and so on. The major differences between the field-based GIS and LBS are the data-editing capabilities. Most field-based ...

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