Globalization is a historical process of transnationalization, denationalization, and deterritorialization that encompasses different arenas, such as the economy, society, politics, culture, academia, and so on, with varying intensities and geographical differences. Loosely defined, it involves an increase in the scope, volume, and velocity of transactions across national borders, not all of which occur on a worldwide basis.

It is misleading to speak of globalization as a linear development, a fixed situation, or an undifferentiated worldwide phenomenon. Certain processes are, depending on world regions, globalized (such as trade, production, and labor and financial markets in the industrialized world), while others are constrained by local, regional, and national identities and policies (such as identity and border politics in sub-Saharan Africa; Central, East, and southeast Asia; and large parts ...

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