• Entry
  • Reader's guide
  • Entries A-Z
  • Subject index

Environmental Impacts of Manufacturing

Manufacturing is the application of labor and tools to raw materials to produce goods for use or sale. It ranges from handicrafts to large-scale industrial production. The hallmarks of industrial-scale production include the use of motorized machinery and a division of labor, both vastly increasing productivity and production compared with earlier manufacturing, with a commensurate increase in intensity and scale of environmental impacts. Environmental impacts can be divided into those associated with the procurement, use, and by-products of energy, water, and materials for manufacturing. The geography of impacts has changed dramatically: Regulations and technological innovations have helped reduce the impacts in industrialized countries, but globalization has shifted higher-impact manufacturing to lower-wage/regulation economies. There are several theorizations of approaches to control the environmental impacts of manufacturing.


The ...

    • Loading...
    locked icon

    Sign in to access this content

    Get a 30 day FREE TRIAL

    • Watch videos from a variety of sources bringing classroom topics to life
    • Read modern, diverse business cases
    • Explore hundreds of books and reference titles