Steel Industry, Geography of

Today, the geography of the steel industry is marked by remarkable internationalization rather than being bound by nationalist industrialization programs for domestic development. The industry's ascent was concomitant with the Industrial Revolution in the 19th century. As the demand for railroads, machinery, and industrial infrastructure emerged, the growth and location of the industry in Britain, and later the United States as well as other European countries, were dictated by the availability of raw materials. With technological changes and state intervention, the geography of steel production witnessed significant movement away from raw materials and national markets to increasingly global markets and offshore production. With neoliberal policies, the industry is characterized by more international trade, foreign direct investment, mergers and acquisitions, and, unexpectedly, the predominance of ...

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