At the beginning of the twentieth century, most Americans did not know about scientifically developed tests. This situation changed after World War I. Wartime leaders implemented extensive intelligence and vocational testing programs to help them categorize the numerous military recruits with whom they were dealing. Popular newspapers and magazines raised awareness about testing when they informed the general public that the soldiers' scores on the new assessment devices were unexpectedly low.

Once the war was over, former military psychologists accepted jobs in the schools. They implemented academic testing programs that were similar to those that they had employed in the armed services. Publishers supplied the school psychologists with tests in areas such as reading, writing, and mathematics. The publishers also provided specialized tests to industrialists and ...

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