An “if-then” supposition is helpful in considering Marxist thought in relation to schooling and education. If one thinks that it is possible to construct effective modes of inquiry in spite of the difficulties human beings confront as they seek to understand themselves, each other, communities, societies, the world, and beyond, then Marx and some Marxists may be relevant to students of teaching and learning. As a child of the Enlightenment, Marx believed that the quest for certainty conducted by religionists and their secular allies was ineffective and even dangerous. Instead, his position was that it is possible to use critical rationalism that is grounded in concrete empirical inquiry to form hypotheses that can then be translated into practice. His emphasis was on collective action. Although ...

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