High-stakes tests are examinations used to make critical decisions about examinees and those who work with the examinees. The hallmark of a high-stakes test is that the results are associated with consequences for those connected to the assessment, such as graduates of professional programs, students in public schools, and teachers and administrators in public schools. High-stakes tests contribute to making decisions about examinees and institutions in many societies, including the United States, Germany, Japan, and Singapore. The consequences of such tests include benefits and detriments. Professional organizations offer guidance in the implementation of high-stakes testing programs that, if followed, should result in fewer of the negative consequences currently associated with high-stakes tests. This entry describes high-stakes tests, their consequences, and strategies for ensuring their fairness ...

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