Asynchronous Development between Partners

In the context of this encyclopedia, asynchronous development between partners contains two hidden assumptions that must be made explicit at the outset: (1) asynchrony is presumed to exacerbate stress that in turn is known to serve as a generalized risk factor for a host of medical, social, and emotional illnesses; and (2) asynchronous development presumes a change over time—both historical-social time and partnered time. Asynchronous development is also considered to be a risk factor for divorce in contemporary society. This entry examines changes in family parenting roles, gendered educational attainment, and the implications of both for life satisfaction, stress, and health.

Paternal and Maternal Roles

In their classic book published more than a half century ago, Talcott Parsons and Robert Bales theorized that roles of fathers were ...

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