Standards are the levels of performance, typically expressed as a rating or grade, on a given criterion. For example, an overall “B” grade may be the standard for admission to a graduate degree program, or accuracy 99% of the time may be the standard for a die-casting machine. Standards are often expressed in a score, often referred to as a cut score, but they may also be nonquantitative, such as, for example, providing an exemplar of acceptable performance. Standards may be absolute or relative and can be used in either a criterion-referenced or norm-referenced context. A standard need not be a single level of performance but may involve multiple levels of performance, such as excellent, acceptable, unacceptable. The term standard is often used incorrectly when ...

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