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Relativism is a view that there is no objective reality or universal truth. Sometimes equated with subjectivity and contrasted with objectivity. Richard Bernstein defines relativism more specifically as the belief that truth and value can be understood only in relation to some theory, conceptual framework, or cultural or social practices. There is a radical sense of relativism that is a self-refuting position (i.e., one cannot hold a relativist position relativistically) and, in any event, too skeptical as an epistemological position. However, more qualified senses of relativism, such as culture-specific knowledge and the epistemology of poststructuralism, are epistemologies that need to be considered more seriously. Indeed, these assumptions of relativism are foundational for a number of evaluation approaches, including fourth generation, participatory, responsive, and transformative.

10.4135/9781412950558.n481
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