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Outcomes are changes, results, and impacts that may be short or long term; proximal or distal; primary or secondary; intended or unintended; positive or negative; and singular, multiple, or hierarchical. Outcomes are enduring changes, in contrast to outputs, which are more specific. Evaluations, especially summative evaluations, measure outcomes at the individual level (changes in knowledge, skills, attitudes), organizational level (changes in policies, practices, capacity), community level (changes in employment rates, school achievement, recycling), and the policy or governmental level (changes in laws, regulations, sources of funding).

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