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By far the most popular approach to the evaluation of training in organizations today is Kirkpatrick's “four levels” framework. This evaluation model delineates four levels of training outcomes: reaction, learning, behavior, and results. Level 1 includes assessment of training participants' reaction to the training program. Kirkpatrick originally discussed reactions in terms of how well participants liked a particular program. In practice, measures at this level have evolved and are most commonly assessments of trainees' affective responses to the quality (e.g., satisfaction with the instructor) or the relevance (e.g., work-related utility) of training. Learning measures, level 2, are quantifiable indicators of the learning that has taken place during the course of the training. Level 3 behavior outcomes address either the extent to which knowledge and skills ...

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