Inference is a conclusion drawn from premises or observations: if drawn from premises, a deductive inference; if from observations, an inductive inference. The common form of a deductive inference is if p, then q. Not q, therefore not p. In other words, the conclusion (not q) must follow from the premise (if p, then q). Inductive inferences are passed when sufficient observation of events have been made so that it is possible to conclude with confidence that something is the case. For example, an evaluator observes instances of client satisfaction with services in adequate numbers and under appropriate varying conditions and can then conclude that clients are satisfied with the services. Statistical conclusions are inductive inferences expressed in probabilistic terms. Inductive inferences carry a certain ...

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