Falsifiability is a criterion for scientific theories, hypotheses, or propositions proffered by Karl Popper in the 1930s. This criterion implies that for any of these to be scientific, they must be refutable or falsifiable, and if they are not, they are merely dogmatic stances. In other words, a scientific theory or idea that cannot be refuted provides nothing of value because any claim or event could or would be consistent with the theory or idea. For an assertion to be falsifiable, there must be empirical evidence that would show the assertion to be false. For example, the assertion “Phonics instruction is the most effective way to teach reading” could be falsified by observing one instance in which phonics instruction did not lead to the ability ...

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