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A fundamental question in business ethics is whether organizations have a responsibility, or even a right, to engage in activities—perhaps aimed at betterment of society—beyond their formally designated roles of providers of goods and services. For example, should firms pay more attention to the environment than is required by law? Should they provide better pay and working conditions than law and market conditions demand? If they do engage in such acts, what are the associated costs to shareholders and others? Similarly, at the individual level there has been growing emphasis on individual actions that exceed formal role requirements to assist others in the firm, meet deadlines, protect the organization, or otherwise “go above and beyond the call of duty.” These issues have deep roots, founded ...

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