Self-regardingness concerns acts and virtues focused on benefiting the self and is a prominent component of a person's orientation to the world. Its strength in relation to other-regardingness has been disputed, with most accounts of human nature also attributing to us a natural concern for others, whereas some other accounts describe humanity as primarily or even exclusively egoistic (psychological egoism). Most scholars would agree, however, that self-regarding tendencies can and do coexist with other-regarding ones in various ways. Self-regardingness should not be confused with selfishness, because it does not necessarily exclude concern for others.

In modern ethics, the moral legitimacy of selfregardingness ranges from its celebration in ethical egoism to its complete denial in altruism. Self-regarding acts and virtues are frequently classified as nonmoral because many ...

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