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Monkeywrenching denotes nonviolent disobedience and sabotage carried out by environmental activists against those they perceive to be ecological exploiters. The term was made popular through its use by Edward Abbey in the novel The Monkey Wrench Gang of 1975, and has, since about 2000, very occasionally been used to indicate other forms of anticapitalist global activism, including culture jamming (see Notes From Nowhere). An equivalent term is ecotage and a contrasting term is ecoterrorism. The latter term is often a misnomer, properly applicable to rogue examples or individuals because monkeywrenching is typically motivated by a regard for preservation of life and is ordinarily restricted to two forms: either to nonviolent disobedience or to sabotage that does not directly endanger others.

Familiar civil disobedience scenarios include activists ...

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