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A Greek philosopher who lived in the fourth century BCE, Aristotle was long referred to as “the Philosopher” and the master of those who know. He was a student of Plato and the teacher of Alexander the Great, and he is widely credited with having been one of the most comprehensive, influential, and profound thinkers ever to have lived. His books were numerous and their topics wide-ranging. Including but not limited to writings on natural science, psychology, logic, ethics, metaphysics, rhetoric, and the art of poetry, Aristotle's corpus also included works treating the investigations at the heart of this encyclopedia.

Three general characteristics of his work help to distinguish Aristotle from other ancient philosophers: (1) he was greatly concerned with empirical evidence, so when studying politics, ...

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