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Basic human rights are moral rights that apply to all persons in all nations, regardless of whether the nation in which a person resides acknowledges and protects those rights. It is in this sense that basic human rights are said to be inalienable. Human rights can also be aspirational in the sense of specifying the ideal rights to which individuals ought to be entitled. The 1948 Universal Declaration of Human Rights is aspirational in this sense. To think about human rights in a meaningful way, it is helpful to answer certain philosophical questions about their nature. Three of the most basic questions are the following: How can human rights be justified? What basic human rights exist? How do human rights differ from other rights, such ...

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