The Cox proportional hazards model is a regression technique that allows modeling of survival times (or hazard functions) as a function of a set of covariates. The model was first introduced by D. R. Cox in 1972. The Cox model makes it possible to estimate the survival distribution while accounting for a number of covariates simultaneously or to compare the hazard functions of two or more groups while adjusting for discrete or continuous covariates. It is widely used in medical research to investigate the association between survival and a set of possible risk factors. In randomized clinical trials, the Cox model is used to determine the efficacy of new treatments or therapies on survival or on the occurrence of an event of interest (e.g., disease ...

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