A carcinogen is an agent, mixture, or exposure that increases the occurrence of cancer. Carcinogen identificationisanactivitybasedontheevaluationofthe results of scientific research. Pertinent data for carcinogen identification include human epidemiologic studies, long-term bioassays in experimental animals, and other relevant data on toxicokinetics and cancer mechanisms. Several classification systems exist to identify the degree of carcinogenicity of agents. The most widely used system is developed by the International Agency for Research on Cancer (IARC), which is part of the World Health Organization.

Most of the existing data about whether an agent might cause cancer originate from laboratory (cell culture and animal) studies. Although it is not possible to predict with certainty which substances will cause cancer in humans based on animal studies alone, virtually all known human carcinogens that ...

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