In 1977, Albert Bandura introduced the concept of self-efficacy, which is defined as the conviction that one can successfully execute the behavior required to produce a specific outcome. Unlike efficacy, which is the power to produce an effect (i.e., competence), self-efficacy is the belief that one has the power to produce that effect. Self-efficacy plays a central role in the cognitive regulation of motivation, because people regulate the level and the distribution of effort they will expend in accordance with the effects they are expecting from their actions. Self-efficacy is the focal point of Bandura's social-cognitive theory as well as an important component of the health belief model.

Theories and models of human behavior change are used to guide health promotion and disease prevention efforts. Self-efficacy ...

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