Research oriented toward action and/or change can take three forms: (1) It can apply the professional expert model, in which the researcher makes a study and recommends a course of action to decision makers in the organization studied; (2) it may involve action research controlled by the researcher, in which the researcher aims to be a principal change agent as well as controlling the research process; or (3) it may involve participatory action research (PAR), in which the researcher seeks to involve some members of the organization studied as active participants in all stages of the research or action process.

Investigations in the PAR context indicate a systematic effort to generate knowledge about specific conditions that can influence changes in a given situation. The term action ...

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