Statistical inference is the science of making conclusions, decisions, or inferences about a population based on information obtained in a sample. The procedure that leads to rejecting or not rejecting specific statements about a population is called hypothesis testing. If there is only one population under investigation, researchers conduct a one-sample test. If they are comparing two populations, they conduct a twosample test. Additionally, there are multisample tests (also known as k-sample tests) to consider more than two populations.

A statistical hypothesis is an assumption or statement or inference regarding one or more parameters of a population distribution, or the type or nature of a population. Both the following are examples of statistical hypotheses: (1) The specificities of two diagnostic tests are the same and (2) ...

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