In demographic terms, fertility is the actual reproductive performance of members of a population. Fertility is one of the three major components of demography, along with mortality and migration. Fecundity, on the other hand, reflects the physiological ability of a woman to reproduce (often referred to as fertility in lay conversation).

Several measures of fertility exist, of which the most frequently used include birthrate, age-specific fertility rate (ASFR), and total fertility rate (TFR).


Birthrates, also known as crude birthrates, represent the actual number of live births per 1,000 population per year. It is mathematically represented by the following equation:


where n represents the number of live births in that year and p is the population size in that year.

Similarly, the general fertility rate is the number of live ...

  • Loading...
locked icon

Sign in to access this content

Get a 30 day FREE TRIAL

  • Watch videos from a variety of sources bringing classroom topics to life
  • Read modern, diverse business cases
  • Explore hundreds of books and reference titles