REFORESTATION REFERS TO the re-emergence of forest vegetation (secondary growth) following clearing of old growth (primary) forest. Reforestation is thus the opposite of deforestation, which involves the removal of forest cover. Reforestation differs from afforestation, which involves tree planting in areas not previously forested. Reforestation is also different from but related to forest restoration, which involves recovery of forest ecosystem functions and is the opposite of forest degradation.

Reforestation is of ecological and social value. Ecologically, forest regrowth provides habitat for many species, including those adapted to disturbed forest ecosystems. Reforestation also protects soils from erosion that can damage stream networks and river chemistry. On the global scale, reforestation sequesters atmospheric carbon in plant biomass, reducing carbon dioxide levels that contribute to climate change. Socially, reforestation ...

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