Race is a problematic social classification that classifies different groups of people by particular physical attributes. Skin color is the most common identifier of racial difference. Some researchers, especially in the areas of genetics and educational psychology, continue to assert the scientific meaning and biological sources of racial differences; increasingly, however most scholars agree that racial categories cannot be thought of as biological in origin. Thus, rather than being given in nature, race must instead be recognized as a social construction, meaning that distinct human races have no real biological basis, but instead reflect subjective discriminations by individuals and societies. Though imaginary, therefore, race has very real consequences for people's lives. Race and racism are products of both social organization and cultural representation, rather than ...

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