After remaining neutral in World War I, Norway underwent a five-year German occupation during World War II and joined the North Atlantic Treaty Organization (NATO), subsequently developing close political and economic ties with other Western nations. Norway has refused to join the European Union (EU) but voluntarily contributes large sums to the EU budget.

Oil and gas were discovered in Norway in the late 1960s and Norway is now the third-highest oil producer in the world; oil and gas comprise one-third of all Norwegian exports. Other natural resources include iron ore, copper, lead, zinc, titanium, pyrites, nickel, fish, timber, and hydropower. With a per capita income of $42,400, Norway is the third richest nation in the world. Planning for a time when oil and gas reserves ...

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