Deriving from famous precursors such as Aristotle and his work, Virtue Ethics, which stresses the importance of character traits and the inherent value of all life, biocentrism is a whole of life—a centered, environmental ethic that positions the environment and all living things as equal to human beings.

The interconnectedness of humans to nature is emphasized, as is the idea that all living things have an equal right to life, and are each unique in their own right. As a concept, it is best understood in relation to its opposite, anthropocentrism, which positions humanity at the center of the world, uniquely different from and superior to all other life forms.

The notion of “biotic justice” underpins biocentrism, which posits that moral values should not only be attributed ...

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