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For much of the last quarter of the 20th century, the Lebanese Republic was involved in a debilitating civil war that drained the country of much-needed resources and destroyed the existing infrastructure. In 1991, the Ta'if Accord paved the way for reconciling divisions between the diverse religious populations and the government, leading to the institution of political and economic reforms. Both Israel and Syria established a military presence in Lebanon to assist in maintaining the tenuous peace. Israel's forces withdrew in 2000; and, bowing to pressure, Syria withdrew its remaining forces in 2004. However, in 2006 renewed hostilities and an Israeli invasion throughout the southern part of the country meant a revival of violence with serious implications for environmental conditions throughout the country.

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