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Latitude is the measure of the geographical distance from a point on the earth's surface to the reference parallel or equator, symbolized by phi. Latitude and longitude are the two angular distances—using either degrees, minutes, and seconds, or decimal degrees—in the geographic coordinate system to precisely communicate the position of a certain location, and their measurement is fundamental for mapping representation and navigation.

Latitude is an angle formed by the plane that crosses a certain location on the earth's surface, the center of the earth, and the equatorial plane. Latitude values range from 0 degrees and 90 degrees to the north of the equator, expressed as a positive angle, and from 0 degrees and 90 degrees in the Southern Hemisphere, expressed as a negative angle—or respectively ...

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