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Dominated by russia during much of its history, the Republic of Kazakhstan has struggled to develop a national identity after the exodus of large numbers of Russian immigrants following independence in 1991. Today, Kazakhs make up 53.4 per cent of the ethnic mix in Kazakhstan, while remaining Russians and Ukrainians constitute one-third of the population. The Kazakh economy has traditionally been dependent on oil, gas, and mining. In 2001, the Caspian Consortium pipeline stretching from Tengiz, Kazakhstan, to the Black Sea, provided a means of substantially increasing Kazakh oil exports. The government is currently negotiating with China to build an additional pipeline.

The government is now attempting to diversify the economy, in which one-fifth the workforce is involved in agriculture. Extensive natural resources include iron ore, ...

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