Formerly known as persia, the Islamic Republic of Iran has long been the site of political struggle, especially for the control of oil, under the influence of foreign powers. In 1953, for example, after the Anglo-Iranian Oil Company was nationalized by the democratically elected government, a traditional monarchy under a shah was reinstated with support from the United States and the United Kingdom. The country received worldwide attention in 1979 by expelling the ruling shah, a strong ally of the United States, and taking over the American Embassy in Tehran. Between 1980–88, Iran carried on a war with neighboring Iraq, ultimately facing the U.S. Navy in 1987–88. Recent elections have further cemented conservative power in Iran and have produced clashes with international organizations over nuclear ...

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