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Modern india is blessed with some of the most diverse and rich environmental resources of any nation in the world. It has long had many environmental problems, however, stemming from its long colonial domination by foreign powers and mismanagement of resources after independence.

The oldest known civilization in India, located in the Indus Valley, flourished from 2500 until 1800 b.c.e. The reasons for its collapse is unclear, but environmental change may have been as conclusive factor, along with tectonic shifts in river course, and the onset of floods which ruined a large amount of agricultural land. The rise of a civilization of ethnolinguistic Aryan immigrants in the centuries following decline of the Indus “Harappans” has led to speculation that the alter civilization drove out the earlier ...

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