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The Word Ideology was first used by the French philosopher Antoine-Louis-Claude Destutt de Tracy during the French Revolution; he called it his “science of ideas” and intended that his study of ideas would transform France into a scientific and rational society.

While Destutt de Tracy enjoyed initial years of popularity, he was eventually scorned by Napoleon, who blamed his military defeats in part on intellectuals and the ideologues. The history and subject of ideology has since been controversial and the word may be used both formally or informally, positively or pejoratively.

Modern philosophy generally describes ideology in both positive and pejorative terms. In a positive sense, ideology is a system of values, beliefs, and ideas, unconscious or conscious, which organize and shape understandings and perceptions of ...

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