Genetic Patents and Seeds

Genetic patents on seeds refer to laws that grant private ownership of seed varieties. With recent developments in biotechnology, patent protection has been extended to include particular plant characteristics. Genetic patents have a long historical trajectory. In the United States, decreasing agricultural productivity in the early 20th century led to a series of official mechanisms establishing state support for basic agricultural research and laws to promote the interest of the agricultural seed industry. This included the Plant Patent Act of 1930, covering plant varieties that could be commercially reproduced asexually through techniques like budding, grafting, and cutting. From the 1930s on, there was increasing pressure from the agricultural industry to put stronger official laws in place. This culminated in the Plant Variety Protection Act (PVPA) ...

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