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The concept of the garden city is attributed to Ebenezer Howard in England, who developed the garden city concept in 1898 as a means of developing towns that had pleasing environments. According to his vision, garden cities were to be self-contained communities. Emphasis was on a manageable population size, neighborhood service centers, mixed land uses, much green space, pedestrian walkways, and a self-contained employment base. In other words, cities were to be socially, economically, and ecologically sustainable. He put his ideas into practice by founding two such cities in England: Letchworth Garden City in 1903, and Welwyn Garden City in 1920. These two cities, although far from fully realizing Howard's vision, continue to serve as excellent examples of healthy and livable communities. Ebenezer Howard is ...

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