A DISASTER IS a serious disruption of society that causes human suffering, and damage to built and natural environments so extensive that the affected communities cannot recover through the use of their own resources. Disasters have traditionally been divided into two groups: natural and manmade. They can also be classified according to their speed of onset, as either sudden or slow.

Man-made disasters are the direct consequence of human action and involve some aspect of human intention, negligence, or error. Technological disasters include transport, industrial, and structural accidents. Two of the greatest man-made industrial disasters occurred in the 20th century: the Bhopal gas tragedy in 1984 and the Chernobyl nuclear disaster in 1986. Man-made disasters may also include ecological disasters in which human actions damage ecosystems, ...

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