Coffee, COFFEA SP., is a perennial shrub that has taken on social and ecological significance for several reasons. First, coffee grows in humid, mountain cloud-forest environments of conservation importance. Coffee growing areas are found in tropical zones of over 50 countries located in five continents, generally above 1000 meters for Arabica varieties, less for robusta. The more valuable arabica varieties require areas of high rainfall, typically formed by orographic precipitation and occurring in mountainous zones surrounded by drier lowlands. This results in a geographic dispersion that makes coffee areas important stopovers for long-distance bird migrations and favors high rates of endemic species. Coffee agro-forests often form areas of relatively high quality ecological matrix that surrounds, connects, and supports conservation reserves. For these reasons, coffee-producing areas ...

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