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In 1960, chad won its independence from France and began a 30-year period of intense civil unrest that included invasions by Libya. Even though peace was declared in 1990, periodic outbreaks of violence continued among rebels in the north. In 2005, amidst claims that Chad was sponsoring rebel fighters in Darfur in western Sudan, guerilla fighters from the Sudan joined northern Chadian guerillas in fighting Chadian government troops, attempting to unseat the controversial President Idriss Deby. Tens of thousands of people in Chad and the Sudan have been killed in the prolonged battle that has spread to other countries including Uganda. Around 250,000 black Sudanese refugees have fled to Chad, but in April 2006, the government threatened to expel them.

Less than 3 percent of the ...

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