From 1946 to 1990, bulgaria was part of the Soviet bloc of nations. After the breakup of the bloc, Bulgaria held its first multiparty election of the post–World War II era and began its transformation into a market economy. This nation of 7,450,349 people covers 110,910 square kilometers, with the Black Sea forming its eastern border. Because of the temperate climate, Bulgarian summers are dry and winters are cold and damp. Bulgarian industry utilizes large deposits of coal, copper, and zinc. Other natural resources include bauxite, lead, timber, and arable land. The mountainous terrain makes the country vulnerable to landslides, and earthquakes are a constant threat.

Environmentally, Bulgaria faces problems with air pollution caused by industrial emissions and with rivers polluted by raw sewage, detergents, ...

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