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Climate is vertical. the fauna and flora of an area varies not only with the latitude of a region, but also with its elevation. For example, along the Mississippi River walnut trees and red squirrels flourish on the river's floodplains; however, gray squirrels and hickory nut trees flourish higher up on ridges above the river. While the distance between the floodplain and the heights of the river's banks is relatively small, the same vertical ecology occurs around the world. Vertical ecology has significant implications for the niches that are occupied by animals that are specialist feeders like the panda bear, rather than generalist feeders like the raccoon.

Mountain elevations allow different fauna and flora to flourish. In the southern Appalachian Mountains of Georgia, North Carolina, Tennessee, ...

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