Formerly known as anglo-egyptian sudan, the Republic of Sudan won its independence from Britain in 1956. The years since independence have been marked by two civil wars and ongoing political and civil unrest that have arisen from deep-root ed conflicts concerning the northern domination of southern Sudanese. After the end of the first civil war in 1972, there was a brief period of peace until war resumed in 1983. War and famine together subsequently caused the deaths of two million Sudanese and displaced another four million. The Naivasha Peace Treaty of 2005 granted a six-year period of southern autonomy, with a referendum scheduled on the issue of independence in 2011.

A separate conflict in the western region of Darfur that began in 2003 has led to ...

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